Доклад от Йога конгреса с международно участие – София, 2013г.
Different commentators of P.Y.S. interpret the components of Kriya yoga merely in terms of Ashtanga yoga. In this article, an attempt has been made to highlight the key role of Kriya yoga with its definite purpose and tried to establish that a sadhaka’s very success and rate of advancement depends upon a large extent on his mastery of Kriya yoga that makes him eligible to take up the higher practice of Yoga.
Key words: kriya yoga, success in yoga, ashtanga yoga.
Self-Realization is the ultimate aim of yoga. Self-realization is that state in which the purushaa (the Seer) gets established in its own original form which can be attained only through ‘cittavritti-nirodha’ i. e., the cessation of all the mental processes1. Maxmuller has so aptly observed that „the aim and end of yoga is not to unite, as is generally believed, but to disunite, to separate, to isolate the purusha from prakrti, giving back to him his essential and original purity. It is only in the forms of mysticism, which make use of yoga, that the latter has union as its end“2 Gita seems to convey the same message ‘taÆ vidy¡t duÅkhasaÆyogaviyoga yogasaÆjμitam’ – that state is known as the yoga where there is viyoga i.e disunion from any contact of pains. By these statements it becomes clear that why Patanjali gives so much emphasis on the restraint of the mental processes. If the mental processes are not restrained, the puruÀa gets carried away along with the mental processes and thereby identifies itself with them that is known as ‘vrittisarupya’ according to Patanjali.4 Patanjali suggests various ways and means to achieve the state of ‘v¤ttinirodha’. If we make a careful analysis of these paths, we can find that each and every path is intended to effect a reorientation or perfection in some part of our being, such as ‘abhyasa-vairagya’5, Ashtanga yoga’ 6 and ‘kriyayoga’.7 According to Patanjali ‘kriyayoga’ consists of three components : ‘tapas’ i. e., austerity or purification, ‘svadhyaya’ i. e. self-study or study of the scriptures and ‘Ishvara-pranidhana’ i.e.,devotion to God here it means resignation of all actions to the God. However, these very components of kriyayoga get again included among the components of ‘niyama’ under Ashtanga yoga. Naturally, the question arises as to why Patanjali has included these three components in two different contexts at all. Either this is a needless repetition on the part of Patanjali or it is intended to serve a definite purpose. The fact becomes clear when we see that Patanjali prescribes kriyayoga for the attenuation of klesas as well as for the cultivation of samadhi9 whereas, in the context of astangayoga, he says, -„through the anusthana of yogasanas consisting of eight components, the light of knowledge culminating in ‘vivekakhyati’ gets developed along with the systematic distruction of impurities’10.
All the traditional commentators are unanimous while commenting on the Sutra II.1, that of kriyayoga is essential for those who have not attained a balanced state of body and mind complex. But later on, while commenting on the sutras related to the eight components of yoga, they seem to interpret these components of kriyayoga merelyin terms of astangayoga11.
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